The Faraday’s induction formula (flux rule) of electromagnetism says that the electromotive force (emf) created in a conducting circuit is equal to the rate at which the magnetic flux through the conducting circuit changes as it is written on a high school text in physics. This emf can be calculated in two ways: either by using the Lorentz force formula and calculating the force acting on electrons in the moving conductor of the circuit; or via one of Maxwell’s equations (Faraday’s law) and calculating the change of the magnetic flux penetrating through the circuit. The Lorentz force formula and Maxwell’s equations are two distinct physical laws, yet the two methods yield the same results. […]

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