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Quantum one-time tables for unconditionally secure qubit-commitment

Quantum 5, 405 (2021).

https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2021-03-10-405

The commodity-based cryptography is an alternative approach to realize conventionally impossible cryptographic primitives such as unconditionally secure bit-commitment by consuming pre-established correlation between distrustful participants. A unit of such classical correlation is known as the one-time table (OTT). In this paper, we introduce a new example besides quantum key distribution in which quantum correlation is useful for cryptography. We propose a scheme for unconditionally secure qubit-commitment, a quantum cryptographic primitive forbidden by the recently proven no-masking theorem in the standard model, based on the consumption of the quantum generalization of the OTT, the bipartite quantum state we named $textit{quantum one-time tables}$ (QOTT). The construction of the QOTT is based on the newly analyzed internal structure of quantum masker and the quantum secret sharing schemes. Our qubit-commitment scheme is shown to be universally composable. We propose to measure the randomness cost of preparing a (Q)OTT in terms of its entropy, and show that the QOTT with superdense coding can increase the security level with half the cost of OTTs for unconditionally secure bit-commitment. The QOTT exemplifies an operational setting where neither maximally classically correlated state nor maximally entangled state, but rather a well-structured partially entangled mixed state is more valuable resource.

Source Quantum | The open journal for quantum science Quantum one-time tables for unconditionally secure qubit-commitment