Quantum Random Access Codes for Boolean Functions

Quantum 5, 402 (2021).

https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2021-03-07-402

An $noverset{p}{mapsto}m$ random access code (RAC) is an encoding of $n$ bits into $m$ bits such that any initial bit can be recovered with probability at least $p$, while in a quantum RAC (QRAC), the $n$ bits are encoded into $m$ qubits. Since its proposal, the idea of RACs was generalized in many different ways, e.g. allowing the use of shared entanglement (called entanglement-assisted random access code, or simply EARAC) or recovering multiple bits instead of one. In this paper we generalize the idea of RACs to recovering the value of a given Boolean function $f$ on any subset of fixed size of the initial bits, which we call $f$-random access codes. We study and give protocols for $f$-random access codes with classical ($f$-RAC) and quantum ($f$-QRAC) encoding, together with many different resources, e.g. private or shared randomness, shared entanglement ($f$-EARAC) and Popescu-Rohrlich boxes ($f$-PRRAC). The success probability of our protocols is characterized by the $textit{noise stability}$ of the Boolean function $f$. Moreover, we give an $textit{upper bound}$ on the success probability of any $f$-QRAC with shared randomness that matches its success probability up to a multiplicative constant (and $f$-RACs by extension), meaning that quantum protocols can only achieve a limited advantage over their classical counterparts.

Source Quantum | The open journal for quantum science Quantum Random Access Codes for Boolean Functions