With the awakening of people’s health consciousness, the concept and practice of health promotion has become the main target of health policies throughout the world. In this study, the relationship between physical education and health promotion was examined. Art students from a university in Taoyuan were selected for research, and a total of 320 questionnaires were issued. Invalid and incomplete questionnaires were eliminated, with a total of 227 valid questionnaires. Finally, the LISREL (Linear Structural Relations) model was used to analyze the correlation between various factors and health promotion. The results of the model analysis show that in terms of basic fit, the three factors of physical education (course design, teaching content, and activity design) have a high correlation with the influence of physical education, reaching a significant level (t > 1.96, p < 0.05). In terms of influence on sports participation, the three factors (physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors) of sports participation reached a significant level (t > 1.96, p < 0.05). The two factors of health promotion (physiological health, and mental health and practical ideas) have a high correlation with the influence of health promotion, reaching a significant level (t > 1.96, p < 0.05). In terms of overall mode fit, the overall mode fit standard χ2/Df was 1.344, less than the standard value of 3 or less, and the RMR value was 0.007, indicating that the χ2/DF and RMR result standards were appropriate, and the chi-square value was very sensitive to the sample size. Therefore, there was a positive correlation among physical education, sports participation, and health promotion. In conclusion, physical activities can improve the human body’s immune function, reduce the symptoms of chronic diseases, and positively promote health. The research result is important for emphasizing the benefit of sports to art students, and provides reference for improving the quality of school physical education, and the physical and mental health level of people in Taiwan.